Amphipterygium adstringens is a plant widely used in Mexican traditional medicine for its known anti-inflammatory and antiulcer properties. Amphipterygium adstringens is a deciduous shrub or small tree, commonly growing about 3 – 6 metres tall, with a broad and rather flat or sometimes narrow . PDF | Extracts from the bark of Amphipterygium adstringens, known as Cuachalalate, is in Mexico commonly used to treat several gastrointestinal disorders.

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To receive news and publication updates for Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, enter your email address in the box below. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Amphipterygium adstringens is a plant widely used in Mexican traditional medicine for its known anti-inflammatory and antiulcer properties.

In this work, we evaluated the in vitro antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities of the methanolic extract of A. Crude extract CE of A. The CE is a complex mixture of possible multitarget metabolites that could be responsible for both antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities, and further investigation is required to elucidate the identity of active compounds. Nevertheless the CE itself is useful in the development of new antimicrobial treatment based on natural products to prevent oral diseases and as alternative natural source for cancer treatment and prevention.

Natural molecules and products reemerge as promising sources of complex multitarget mixtures that are used as alternative therapeutic agents for various conditions, including infections and chronic diseases [ 12 ], such as oral diseases [ 3 — 5 ] or digestive cancers [ 6 ].

The bark has traditionally been used by healers to treat gastritis, gastric ulcers [ 9 ], gastrointestinal cancer [ 1011 ], colic, fever [ 1213 ], and also tooth pain [ 14 ]. Moreover, anti-inflammatory [ 15 ], hypocholesterolemic [ 16 ], antifungal [ 17 ], and antiprotozoal [ 18 ] activities have been reported as properties for this plant.

In Vitro Antimicrobial and Antiproliferative Activity of Amphipterygium adstringens

Recent studies have shown that the active component responsible for the plant properties is the anacardic acid [ 19 ] which exerts antioxidant, anti-inflammatory [ 20 ], antitumoral [ 21 ], antiulcer and antimicrobial activities [ 919 ]. A wide range of uses and diversity of biological activities reported reminds us of a complex mixture of multitarget compounds, which is a common characteristic in several medicinal plants and similar to others [ 22 ]. Microbial communities in the mouth have been shown to cause infectious diseases such as dental caries [ 23 ], candidiasis [ 24 ], gingivitis and periodontitis [ 25 ], and other chronic or systemic diseases [ 26 — 28 ].

Streptococcus mutans is the main pathogenic agent related to the initiation of dental caries. Its virulence relies on its ability to form biofilms on teeth surface, to degrade carbohydrates particularly refined sugars from food with the formation of large amounts of organic acids that demineralize tooth enamel, and to adapt and tolerate environmental stresses, particularly low pH aciduricity [ 29 ]. Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans are bacteria often isolated from the subgingival biofilm [ 3031 ] and associated with periodontitis and gingivitis.

Dental biofilm stimulates the release of proteolytic enzymes, which cause disruption of the epithelial junction, gingival and alveolar bone loss, increasing tooth mobility, and, ultimately, tooth loss [ 32 ]. Dental biofilm induce a peripheral neutrophil response [ 33 ] and it has been associated with systemic conditions such as infective endocarditis [ 34 ], cardiovascular disease [ 35 ], preterm and low birth weight [ 36 ], and pancreatic cancer [ 37 ].

Additionally, the constantly observed correlation between oral microbiome especially biofilm builders [ 28 ] with chronic inflammatory disease and cancer triggers the need for further research that contributes with novel sources of bioactive compounds. Oropharyngeal candidiasis, caused by Candidais a local infection commonly seen in infants, older adults who wear dentures, patients treated with antibiotics, chemotherapy, or radiation therapy on head and neck, and those with cellular immune deficiency states, such as HIV infection [ 38 ].


Candida albicans is often guilty in oral candidiasis and has been implicated in persistent apical periodontitis [ 40 ]. On the other side, Candida dubliniensis was involved with denture stomatitis and oropharyngeal candidiasis in immunocompromised subject [ 4142 ] and has an invasive history in survival of head or neck cancers patients [ 43 ].

Treatments for these infections have grown to be a great challenge, because of a rise in the frequency of infections and an increasing resistance to standard antifungal therapy.

The increasing cancer incidence is closely related to the raise in life expectancy and longevity that consequently results in a longer exposure to carcinogenic agents such as pollution, UV radiation, and microorganisms [ 44 ]. The reduction of pathogens associated with systemic and oral infections, using natural products to inhibit the ability to form biofilms, could be an effective approach to prevent and control oral diseases.

Moreover, there has been a decline in research, development, and approvals of new antimicrobial agents. Among other reasons, one main cause is the high cost with a low rate of return compared to drugs used to treat chronic conditions, limitations on the use of newly approved antibacterial agents, and trial design and regulatory issues [ 45 ]. This engages the scientific community to continue obtaining research-based information towards the application and use of traditional medicine that medical health care systems can rely on.

With this approach, we studied the antimicrobial activity of CE of A. This is, undoubtedly, a significant contribution in the field of alternative medicine towards the elaboration of novel antimicrobial agents to prevent and treat oral infections and to reduce the potential risk of systemic chronic diseases and cancer. Amphipterygium adstringens bark was obtained by Dr. The taxonomic identification was made by Dr.

Mauricio Gonzalez, following the last revision of the genus Amphipterygium Julianaceae [ 46 ]. The bark of A. The extract was filtered with filter paper Whatman Grade 1 to remove debris and filter-sterilized with 0. The antimicrobial effect of the crude extract of A.

Strains were cultured following their specific requirements.

Louis, MO, USA was used as positive control for bactericidal activity due to its antibacterial spectrum against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and actual adstrringens on oral hygiene; Fluconazole Pfizeran oral azole, was selected as positive control against Candida because it is frequently used in patients who suffer oropharyngeal and esophageal candidiasis.

The minimum inhibitory concentrations MIC were determined by microdilution broth method according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute [ 49 ], using well plates. MIC was determined as the lowest concentration of CE that inhibited microorganism growth. The experiment was performed by duplicate in three independent tests.

The lowest concentration of the subculture with no growth was considered the minimum bactericidal concentration MBC or the minimum fungicidal concentration MFC. Probability values of were considered to be significant. The cell line has less than 20 passages as laboratory good practices. Using the concentration-response curve for each cell line, total growth inhibition TGI was defined as the concentration value that produces total growth inhibition and was determined by nonlinear regression analysis using the software Origin 7.

This value corresponded to the test extract concentration necessary to inhibit proliferation of the cells. Doxorubicin was used as positive control. The assay was performed by triplicate per concentration of CE in three independent tests. Methanolic extract of A. The most sensitive strain was S.

Similar results are exhibited by A. Pure chlorhexidine positive control showed a Amphipterjgium of 0. In this model, in vitro cytotoxicity determination of the CE of A. There exists an increasing prevalence of infections worldwide, due to, among other reasons, the growing resistance of pathogens to antibiotics and antifungals as well as alterations in the autoimmune system.

Diseases as caries, periodontitis and gingivitis, oropharyngeal candidiasis, and cancer have had profound effects adsstringens human health. Microbial species in oral cavity are commensals under normal physiological conditions.

The host immune response, supplemented by excellent oral hygiene, is sufficient to amphi;terygium healthy tissues. However, failures in immune defense or plaque control result in development of gingival inflammation [ 25 — 27 ]. In this investigation, we tested the crude extract of A. Additionally our results provide novel evidence that A. In regard of activity shown against S. On the other hand, biocidal activity against periodontopathogens showed that amphipteryggium crude extract of A.


These results are consistent with previous work demonstrating higher amphipterygiuj of S. Chlorhexidine is the most common mouthwash product used for caries and periodontal diseases and kills bacteria by causing a precipitation or coagulation of the cytoplasmic content.

It is an effective antiplaque agent developed to date, but it has been proven that prolonged use causes several undesirable side effects; besides many clinical trials have shown that taste of adstribgens is not well accepted by children [ 52 ].

Adetringens results, along with adstrinngens reports of A. As for activity of A. Those are the lowest among all MIC values shown in our data, suggesting that A.

Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine

Fluconazole is commonly used as therapy for candidiasis in HIV and cancer patients, but the rise in prevalence of fungal infections and drug resistance has exacerbated the need of novel antifungal compounds. Our results provide evidence of potential antifungal application of A. As mentioned before, oral microbiota diversity is closely related to health conditions and systemic diseases such as cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases and amphipterggium.

This is why we designed experiments to holistically adstringes both biological activity against oral pathogens and antiproliferative activity on human cancer cell lines. The model used in this work to evaluate the antiproliferative activity was the assay with Sulforhodamine B an anionic dye that allowed the evaluation of antitumor activity through exposure of selected human tumor cell lines during exponential growth phase, at different concentrations of the A.

These are significant activities at low concentrations considering that CE is a mixture of nonpurified compounds, such as those found in actual traditional use of A.

Consistent with our results, other authors reported A. Similarly, low TGI values for CE were proved in every tumor cell line included in the selected panel. This data confirms that complex mixtures of plants, essential oils, and natural alternative therapeutics that have been widely used in traditional medicine represent an effective, safe, and evidence based treatment for acute and chronic infections as well as chronic health conditions.

Preparations and formulations of this CE can be improved and applied for daily use in dental products to prevent caries and periodontal diseases and concomitantly weaken the risk of cancer.

The findings of the present study demonstrated a broad potential using the heterogeneous mixture of CE of A. These effective antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities make A.

Principles of the bark of Amphipterygium adstringens (Julianaceae) with anti-inflammatory activity.

However, further research should be made to test whether secondary metabolites from A. The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Indexed in Science Citation Index Expanded.

Subscribe to Table of Contents Alerts. Table of Contents Alerts. Abstract Amphipterygium adstringens is a plant widely used in Mexican traditional medicine for its known anti-inflammatory and antiulcer properties.

Introduction Natural molecules and products reemerge as promising sources of complex multitarget mixtures that are used as alternative therapeutic agents for various conditions, including infections and chronic diseases [ 12 ], such as oral diseases [ 3 — 5 amphipterugium or digestive cancers [ 6 ].

Whole plant and bark of Amphipterygium adstringens growing in Michoacan, Mexico. Antimicrobial activity of the crude extract of A. Cell lines used in the evaluation of antiproliferative activity. View at Google Scholar Adstfingens. View at Google Scholar H. View at Google Scholar M. View at Google Scholar I. Caetano M Antunes, and B. De La Rosa, and G. View at Google Scholar J. View at Google Scholar A.